Barbara May Bernhardt

Professor Emerita

Ph.D., University of British Columbia, 1990


Crosslinguistic Project Phonological Development website:


Barbara May Bernhardt received her MSc in speech-language pathology from the School of Audiology and Speech Sciences in 1972 and her PhD in 1990 on application of nonlinear phonology to intervention. She was on faculty in the School from 1990-2017, when she retired (June 30 2017). She currently is Professor Emerita.

Research interests include phonological and phonetic development, assessment and intervention, including the use of ultrasound as visual feedback. Other areas include developmental language acquisition and difficulties and service delivery to First Nations, Métis and Inuit in Canada.

Ongoing Projects as Emerita:

1. Phonological development (typical and protracted) across languages: An international study (since 2004) is characterizing phonological development across 15 languages and providing free clinical assessment tools and tutorials (through SASS PhD graduates Hadeel Ayyad (Kuwaiti Arabic), Daniel Bérubé (French) and Glenda Mason (English multisyllabic words) are collaborators on this ongoing project.

2 . Articulatory visual feedback with ultrasound: A number of projects (including the dissertation of Penelope Bacsfalvi) have explored the effectiveness of visual feedback in speech therapy and accent modification as provided by ultrasound and electropalatography. An upcoming project will be comparing ultrasound in intervention for children with cleft palate in Kuwaiti Arabic, English and French (with Drs. Ayyad, Bacsfalvi and Bérubé).

Bernhardt’s Phonology Publications


Bernhardt, B. 1990. Application of nonlinear phonological theory to intervention with six phonologically disordered children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia.


Bernhardt, B.H. & Stemberger, J.P. (2000). Workbook in nonlinear phonology for clinical application. Austin, TX: PRO-ED. (Copyright reverted to authors, through the phonodevelopment website noted above).

Bernhardt, B.H. & Stemberger, J.P. (1998). Handbook of phonological development. From a nonlinear constraints-based perspective. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Journal Articles

Romonath, R. & Bernhardt, B.M. 2017. Erwerb prosodischer Wortstrukturen bei Vorschulkindern mit und ohne phonologische Störungen [Prosodic word structure acquisition in preschool children with and without phonological disorders]. Forschung Sprache 1, 91-107.

Stemberger, J.P. & Bernhardt, B.M. 2017. Tap and trill clusters in typical and protracted phonological development: Challenging segments in complex phonological environments. Introduction to the special issue, Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 32 (5-6), 563-575.

Perez, D., Vivar, P., Bernhardt, B.M., Mendoza, E., Ávila, C., Carballo, G., Fresneda, D., Muñoz, J. & Vergara, P. 2017 Word-initial rhotic clusters in Spanish-speaking preschoolers in Chile and Granada, Spain. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 32 (5-6), 481-505. DOI: 10.1080/02699206.2017.1359852

Bernhardt, B.M. & Stemberger, J.P. 2017 Tap and trill clusters in typical and protracted phonological development: Conclusion. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 32 (5-6), 411-423. DOI: 10.1080/02699206.2017.1370496
Ozbič, M., Kogovšek, D., Stemberger, J., Bernhardt, B.M., Muznik, M. & Novšak Brce, J. 2017. Word-initial rhotics in Slovenian 4-year olds with typical versus protracted phonological development, Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 32 (5- 6), 523-543.

Ignatova, D., Bernhardt, B.M., Marinova-Todd. S. & Stemberger, J.P. 2017. Word- initial trill clusters in children with typical versus protracted phonological development: Bulgarian, Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 32 (5-6), 506-522.

Kemp, N., Scott, J., Bernhardt, B.M., Johnson, C.J., Siegel, L., & Werker, J. 2017. Minimal pair word learning and vocabulary size: Links with later language skills, Applied Psycholinguistics, 38 (2), 289-314.

Chen, R.K., Bernhardt, B.M., & Stemberger, J.P. 2016. Phonological assessment and analysis tools for Tagalog: Preliminary development. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 30 (8), 599-627.

Ayyad, H.S., Bernhardt, B.M. & Stemberger, J.P. 2016. Kuwaiti Arabic. Acquisition of singleton consonants. International Jnl. of Language and Communication Disorders, 51(5), 531–545.

Bernhardt, B.M., Hanson, R., Perez, D., Ávila, C., Lleó, C., Stemberger, J.P., Carballo, G., Mendoza, E., Fresneda, D. & Chávez-Peón, M. 2015. Word structures of Granada Spanish-speaking preschoolers with typical versus protracted phonological development. Intl. Jnl. of Lang. & Communication Disorders, 50(3), 298-311.

Bérubé, D., Bernhardt, B. M., & Stemberger. 2015. A test of Canadian French phonology: Construction and use. Canadian Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, 39(1), 61-100.

Bernhardt, B.M., Másdóttir, T., Stemberger, J.P., Leonhardt, L., & Hansson, G.O. 2015. Fricative development in Icelandic and English-speaking children with protracted phonological development. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 29(8-10), 642-665.

Mason, G.K., Bérubé, D., Bernhardt, B.M. & Stemberger, J.P. 2015. Evaluation of multisyllabic word production in Canadian English- and French-speaking children within a nonlinear phonological framework, Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 29(8-10), 666-685.

Feehan, A., Francis, C., Bernhardt, B.M., & Colozzo, P. 2015. Outcomes of phonological and morphosyntactic intervention for twin boys with protracted speech and language development. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 31, 53-69.

Lipetz, H. & Bernhardt, B.M. 2013. A multi-modal approach to intervention for a frontal lisp in one adolescent. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 27(1), 1–17.

Bernhardt, B.M. Green, E., Khurana, A., Laporte, T., Osmond, S., Panchyk, H., Shahnaz, N. & Campbell, H. 2011. (Accepted April 15, 2011). Course development at the University of British Columbia concerning Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology for people of First Nations, Métis and Inuit heritage. CJASLPA, 35(2), 178-189.

Bernhardt, B.M., & Zhao, J. 2010. Nonlinear phonological analysis in assessment of protracted phonological development in Mandarin. CJSLPA, 34, 168-180.

Bernhardt, B.M., Bacsfalvi, P., Adler-Bock, M., Shimizu, R., Cheney, A., Giesbrecht, N., O’Connell, M., Sirianni, J. & Radanov, B. 2008. Ultrasound as visual feedback in speech therapy: Exploring consultative use in rural British Columbia. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 22(2), 149-162.

Adler-Bock, M., Bernhardt, B., Gick, B., & Bacsfalvi, P. 2007. The use of ultrasound in remediation of /r/ in adolescents. Amer. Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(2), 128-139.

Bernhardt, B., Bacsfalvi, P., Gick, B., Radanov, B., & Williams, R. 2005. Exploring electropalatography and ultrasound in speech habilitation. Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, 29, 169-182.

Bernhardt, B., Gick, B., Bacsfalvi, P., & Adler-Bock, M. 2005. Ultrasound in speech therapy with adolescents and adults. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 19, 605-617.

Bernhardt, B. & Major, E. 2005. Speech, language and literacy skills three years later: Long-term outcomes of nonlinear phonological intervention. Intl. Jnl. of Language and Communication Disorders, 40, 1-27.

Bernhardt, B.H. & Stemberger, J.P. 2002. Intervocalic consonants in the speech of children with phonological disorders. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 16(3), 199-214.

Major, E. & Bernhardt, B. 1998. Metaphonological skills of children with phonological disorders before and after phonological and metaphonological intervention. Intl. Jnl. of Language and Communication Disorders, 33, 413-444.

Bernhardt, B.,& Stoel-Gammon, C. 1994. Nonlinear phonology: Clinical application. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37, 123-143.

Bernhardt, B. 1992. Developmental implications of nonlinear phonological theory. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 6, 259-282.

Bernhardt, B. 1992. The application of nonlinear phonological theory to intervention. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 6, 283-316.

Book Chapters

Bernhardt, B.M. & Stemberger, J.P. 2017. Investigating typical and protracted phonological development across languages. In E. Babatsouli, D. Ingram & N. Müller (eds.) Crosslinguistic encounters in language acquisition: typical and atypical development (pp. 71-108). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Bernhardt, B.M., & Stoel-Gammon, C. 2013. Interactions of linguistic theory and clinical applications: Reviewing the history of our field. In B.Peters & A. McLeod (Eds). Comprehensive perspectives on child speech development and disorders: Pathways from linguistic theory to clinical practice (pp. 3-29). New York: Nova.

Bernhardt, B., Ball, J. & Deby, J. 2007. Cross-cultural perspectives and children’s speech acquisition. In S. McLeod (ed.) The international guide to speech acquisition. (pp. 101-106). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Thomson.

Bernhardt, B. & Stemberger, J.P. 2007. Phonological impairment. In P. Lacy (ed.) Handbook of Phonology. (pp. 575-593.) Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.