Susan Small

Associate Professor
Hamber Professor in Clinical Audiology

B.Sc. Honours (University of British Columbia)
M.Sc. (Simon Fraser University)
M.S. (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Ph.D. (University of British Columbia)

Contact

Phone: (604) 822-5696 (office); (604) 822-6325 (lab)
Fax: (604) 822-6569
E-mail: ssmall@audiospeech.ubc.ca

Profile

Research in the Pediatric Audiology Lab is focussed on furthering our understanding of the maturation of hearing through investigations of peripheral (external ear to 8th nerve) and central (brainstem to cortex) processing. Although the cochlea has been shown to be adult-like at birth, differences in auditory processing at the level of the brainstem and cortex are evident for infants and young children compared to adults. My research investigates both the estimation of hearing threshold in infants with normal hearing and hearing loss using behavioural measures (e.g., visual reinforcement audiometry) and auditory evoked potentials (e.g., auditory steady-state responses) using both air- and bone conducted stimuli and the mechanisms that underlie the infant-adult differences.  My research focus also includes using cortical event-related potentials to learn more about the effect that auditory experience has on early speech perception abilities in infants with normal hearing (i.e., typical amount of auditory experience with speech and language) and young infants who are identified with hearing loss.

Selected Recent Publications:

(Student researchers are underlined)

Mackey, A.R., Hodgetts, W.E. & Small, S.A. (2017). Maturation of bone-conduction transcranial attenuation using a measure of sound pressure in the ear canal. International Journal of Audiology, 1-8. doi:10.1080/14992027.2017.1410585

Small, S.A., Sharma, M., Bradford, M., Mandikal Vasuki, P. (2017). The effects of signal-to-noise ratio on cortical auditory evoked potentials elicited to speech stimuli in infants and adults with normal hearing. Ear and Hearing Epub ahead of print 2017 Aug 1. DOI: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000487

Small, S.A. & Stapells, D.R. (2017). “Chapter 21: Threshold Assessment in Infants Using the Frequency-Specific Auditory Brainstem Response and Auditory Steady-State Response” in Comprehensive Handbook of Pediatric Audiology, 2ndedition, Tharpe A.M. & Seewald, R. (Eds.). Plural Publishing, Inc., San Diego, CA., pp. 505-549.

Small, S.A. (2017). Infants, auditory steady-state responses, and clinical practice. In A-M. Tharpe & M. Bagatto (eds.): A Sound Foundation Through Early Amplification 2016. Basel: Phonak AG.

Small, S.A., Ishida, I. & Stapells, D.R. (2016). Infant cortical auditory evoked potentials to lateralized noise shifts produced by changes interaural time difference. Ear and Hearing, Epub ahead of print 2016 Aug 6.

Mackey, A., Hodgetts, W.E., Scott, D. & Small, S.A. (2016). Maturation of mechanical impedance of the skin-covered skull: Implications for soft band bone-anchored hearing systems fitted in infants and young children. Ear and Hearing 2016 Jan 29. [Epub ahead of print]

Chen, K.H. & Small, S.A. (2015). Elicitation of the acoustic change complex (ACC) to long-duration speech stimuli in four-month-old infants. International Journal of Otolaryngology doi: 10.1155/2015/562030. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

Small, S.A. (2015). Physiological measures and their potential for the assessment of pediatric hearing needs. American Journal of Audiology, 24: 113-116.  Research Forum.

Small, S.A., Smyth, A. & Leon, G. (2014). Effective masking levels for bone-conduction ASSRs to 500- and 2000-Hz stimuli in infants and adults with normal hearing. Ear and Hearing, 35(1):63-71.

Casey, K-A. & Small, S.A. (2014). Comparisons of auditory steady-state response and behavioural air-and bone-conduction thresholds for infants and adults with normal hearing. Ear and Hearing, 35(4):423-39.

Small, S.A. & Love, A.M. (2014). An investigation into the clinical utility of ipsilateral/contralateral asymmetries in bone-conduction auditory steady-state responses. International Journal of Audiology, 53(9):604-12.

Kotjan, H., Purves, B. & Small, S.A. (2013). Cochlear implantation for a child with cochlear nerve deficiency: parent perspectives explored through narratives. International Journal of Audiology, Early Online: 1-7. doi:10.3109/14992027.2013.820000

Small, S.A. & Werker, J.F. (2012), Does the ACC have potential as an index of early speech discrimination ability?   A preliminary study in four-month-old infants with normal hearing. Ear and Hearing. E-print http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22785572

Small, S.A. & Dimitrijevic, A. (2012). Chapter 7: Physiological mechanisms underlying auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs). In Tremblay, K . & Burkhard R. (Eds.) Translational Perspectives in Auditory Neuroscience: Hearing Across the Lifespan – Assessment and Disorders. Plural Publishing.

Small, S.A. & Hansen, E.E. (2012). Effective masking levels for bone-conducted amplitude- and frequency-modulated tones in adults with normal hearing: A behavioural study. International Journal of Audiology, 51(3): 216-219.

Hansen, E.E., & Small, S.A. (2012) Effective masking levels for bone conduction auditory steady-state responses in infants and adults with normal hearing. Ear and Hearing, 32(2): 257-266.

Small, S.A., & Hu, N. (2011). Maturation of the occlusion effect: A bone-conduction auditory steady-state response study in infants and adults with normal hearing. Ear and Hearing, 32(6): 708-719.

Hulecki, L.R. & Small, S.A.  (2011). Behavioral bone-conduction threshold for infants with normal hearing. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 22(2):1-12.

Small, S.A. & Stapells, D.R. (2008c).  Maturation of bone-conduction multiple auditory steady-state responses. International Journal of Audiology 47(8):476-488.

Small, S.A. & Stapells, D.R.. (2008b).  Normal ipsilateral/contralateral asymmetries in infant multiple auditory steady-state responses to air-and bone-conduction stimuli.   Ear and Hearing, 29(2): 185-198.

Small, S.A. & Stapells, D.R. (2008a).  Chapter 11: Bone-conduction auditory steady-state responses. In: Rance, G. (Ed.) The Auditory Steady-State Response:  generation, recording and clinical application. Plural Publishing, Inc.

Small, S. A., Hatton, J. & Stapells, D.R. (2007).  Effects of bone oscillator coupling method, placement location, and occlusion on bone-conduction auditory steady-state responses in infants. Ear and Hearing 28(1): 83-98.

Small, S.A. & Stapells, D.R. (2006).  Multiple auditory steady-state response thresholds to bone-conduction stimuli in young infants with normal hearing. Ear and Hearing, 27(3):219-228.

Recent Presentations:

Invited

Small, S.A. 2017. One-hour presentation: Infant assessment using the auditory brainstem response and auditory steady-state-response: updates for clinical practice”. 2017 CAA Conference and Exhibition, Ottawa, ON (October 11-14, 2017).

Small, S.A. 2017. One-day workshop: Early identification of hearing loss in infants and young children using objective electrophysiological measures: Best practices and new research. College of Audiologists and Speech-Language Pathologists of Manitoba (CASLPM) Educational Conference 2017 (April 20 & 21st, 2017).

Small, S.A.  2016. Half-hour featured presentation: Infants, auditory steady-state responses, and clinical practice. In featured session: Back to the Basics: Current Approaches in Infant Hearing Assessment. 7th International Pediatric Audiology Conference: A Sound Foundation through Early Amplification (Atlanta, October 2-5, 2016).

Small, S.A. 2016. One-hour live webinar: Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to brief-tone bone-conducted (BC) stimuli. AudiologyOnline course for Continuing Education Credits, June 15, 2016.

Small, S.A. 2016. Featured Session: Infants with hearing loss: Diagnosis and rehabilitation. Speakers: Small, S.A., Ching, T., van Wieringen, A., & Gordon, K. XXXIII World Congress of Audiology (Vancouver, Canada, September 18-21, 2016). Featured Session chair & speaker.

Small, S.A. 2014. “Cortical measures and their potential for the assessment of pediatric hearing needs“. Conference on HEaring across the lifespan (HEAL 2014) (Cernobbio, Italy, June 5-7, 2014). Special Session: “The brain and hearing aids: Considerations for children, younger and older adults”.

Small, S.A. 2014. “Physiological measures and their potential for the assessment of pediatric hearing needs”. Academy Research Conference 2014, AudiologyNow, American Academy of Audiology 26th Annual Conference, March 26-28, 2014, Orlando, Florida; research talks that launch the conference (7000 participants)

Small, S.A. 2014. “The acoustic change complex in infants: Does it have potential as a tool to assess speech discrimination in clinical populations?” 2014 CLaS-CCD Research Colloquium Series, February 19, 2014, Australian Hearing Hub/Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

Small, S.A.  2011. “Bone-conduction auditory evoked potentials (AEPs): Research to clinical practice” for Round Table Session entitled, “Auditory Evoked Responses: New Frontiers for Clinical Applications Based on Research Advances” [J. Hall (chair); S. Purdy & J. Barajas (panelists)]. XXII Biennial Symposium of the International Evoked Response Audiometry Study Group (Moscow, Russia, June 26-30, 2011). Invited panelist.

Small, S.A.  2011. Diagnosis of hearing loss in infants using brief-tone auditory brainstem responses and auditory steady-state responses. Canadian Association of Speech-Language Pathologists & Audiologists 2011 Conference, Montreal, QC, [April 27-30, 2011]. Invited ½-day conference workshop.

Conference presentations

(Student researchers are underlined)

Angel, R., Shahnaz, N., Small, S.A. & Herdman, A.T. 2016. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials (CAEPs) to gaps in noise in order to estimate gap-detection thresholds. XXXIII World Congress of Audiology (Vancouver, Canada, September 18-21, 2016).

Jordan, R.L., Herdman, A.T. & Small, S.A. 2016. Cortical auditory evoked potentials in response to gap detection in infants. XXXIII World Congress of Audiology (Vancouver, Canada, September 18-21, 2016).

Hatton, J.L., Beers, A.N., Rowlandson, J. B., Herdman, A.T. & Small, S.A. 2016. Telehealth-Enabled Auditory Brainstem Response Testing in Infants: Proof-of-Concept Model. XXXIII World Congress of Audiology (Vancouver, Canada, September 18-21, 2016).

Small, S.A. 2016. Featured Session: Infants with hearing loss: Diagnosis and rehabilitation. Speakers: Ching, T., van Wieringen, A., & Gordon, K. XXXIII World Congress of Audiology (Vancouver, Canada, September 18-21, 2016) Invited Featured Session Chair and speaker.

Lower, M., Mandikal Vasuki, P.R., Sharma, M., Ibrahim, R. & Small, S.A. 2015. Auditory attention in young adults: a P300 study. XXIV Biennial Symposium of the International Evoked Response Audiometry Study Group (Busan, Korea, May 10-14, 2015)

Small, S.A., Bradford, M., Mandikal Vasuki, P.R., & Sharma, M. 2015. The effects of signal-to-noise ratio on cortical auditory evoked potentials elicited to speech stimuli in infants and adults with normal hearing. XXIV Biennial Symposium of the International Evoked Response Audiometry Study Group (Busan, Korea, May 10-14, 2015)

Valeriote, H. & Small, S.A. 2015. Comparison of air- and bone-conduction auditory brainstem and multiple 80-Hz auditory steady-state responses in infants with normal hearing and conductive hearing loss. XXIV Biennial Symposium of the International Evoked Response Audiometry Study Group (Busan, Korea, May 10-14, 2015).

Small, S.A., Love, A. 2013. Can ipsilateral/contralateral asymmetries in infant bone-conduction auditory steady-state responses be used to isolate the test ear? XXIII Biennial Symposium of the International Evoked Response Audiometry Study Group (New Orleans, USA, June 9-13, 2013).

Small, S.A., Mackey, A., Hodgetts, W. 2013. Maturation of skull properties: Implications for soft band bone-anchored hearing systems. The Fourth International Symposium on Bone Conduction Hearing – Craniofacial Osseo-Integration. Newcastle upon Tyne, England, June 6-8, 2013.

Mackey, A., Hodgetts, W. & Small, S.A. 2013. Infant skull properties: Implications for soft band bone-anchored hearing systems. American Auditory Society 2012 Meeting, Scottsdale, AZ (March 7-9, 2013).

Small, S.A., Leon, G. & Smyth, A. 2012. Effective masking levels at 500 and 2000 Hz for bone-conduction auditory steady-state responses in infants and adults with normal hearing. Abstracts of the International Conference on Newborn Hearing Screening, Diagnosis and Intervention (Cernobbio, Italy, June 5-7, 2012).

Hansen, E. & Small, S.A. 2010. Effective masking levels for bone-conduction auditory steady-state response thresholds in infants, 13th Annual Canadian Academy of Audiology Conference (Montreal, QC), October 7-9, 2010.

Small, S.A., & Hu, N. 2010.  Maturation of the occlusion effect: an auditory steady-state response in infants with normal hearing. Abstracts of the International Conference on Newborn Hearing Screening, Diagnosis and Intervention (Cernobbio, Italy, June 8-10, 2010).

Small, S.A., Hu, N. & Shahnaz, N. 2009. Maturation of bone-conduction auditory steady-state response thresholds and the mechano-acoustical properties of the middle ear in occluded and unoccluded ears in infants with normal hearing. XXI Biennial Symposium of the International Evoked Response Audiometry Study Group (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 8-11, 2009).

Small, S.A. & Werker, J.F. 2009.  Acoustic-change complex to speech stimuli in four-month-old infants and adults with normal hearing. XXI Biennial Symposium of the International Evoked Response Audiometry Study Group (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 8-11, 2009).

Small, S.A. & Stapells, D.R. 2007.  Maturation of bone-conduction multiple auditory steady-state responses: Criteria for “normal”.  XX Biennial Symposium of the International Evoked Response Audiometry Study Group (Bled, Slovenia, June 11-14, 2007).

Small, S.A. & Stapells, D.R. 2006.  Maturation of bone-conduction auditory steady-state response thresholds in infants 0-24 months of age.  International Conference on Newborn Hearing Screening, Diagnosis and Intervention (Cernobbio, Italy, May 31-June 3, 2006).

Teaching

AUDI 562 Pediatric Audiology
AUDI 528 Aural Rehabilitation
AUDI 552 Diagnostic Audiology I
AUDI 558 Physiological Measures of Auditory Function